Wienerparti är en schacköppning som börjar med dragen:
White’s second move is less common than 2.Nf3, and is also of more recent vintage; a book reviewer wrote in the New York Times in 1888 that ”since Morphy only one new opening has been introduced, the ‘Vienna'”.
The original idea behind 2.Nc3 was to play a type of delayed King’s Gambit with f2–f4, but in modern play White often plays more quietly (for example by fianchettoing his king’s bishop with g3 and Bg2). Black most often continues with 2…Nf6, but 2…Nc6 is also playable, as is the unusual 2…Bc5 3.Nf3 d6! The opening also harbours the notorious Frankenstein-Dracula Variation (2…Nf6 3.Bc4 Nxe4), which can become ferociously complex.
Weaver W. Adams, whom Grandmaster Larry Evans described as having an ”all or nothing” mentality, famously claimed that the Vienna Game led to a forced win for White. However, Grandmaster Nick de Firmian, in the 15th edition of Modern Chess Openings (MCO-15), concludes that the opening leads to equality with best play by both sides.
2…Nf6[edit source | editbeta]
3.f4[edit source | editbeta]
At grandmaster level, the move 3.f4…, the Vienna Gambit, is considered too risky an opening. It is best met by 3…d5, striking back in the center, since 3…exf4 4.e5 Qe7 5.Qe2 forces Black’s knight to retreat. After 4.fxe5 Nxe4, 5.Qf3 is well met by 5…Nc6, with the point 6.Nxe4 Nd4. 5.d3 is also possible, but the normal continuation is 5.Nf3. White obtains open lines and attacking chances, but Black can usually hold the balance with correct play.
3.Bc4[edit source | editbeta]
The move 3.Bc4 leads to a position which can also be reached from the Bishop’s Opening (1.e4 e5 2.Bc4). Black has several choices here; 3…Bc5 can transpose to the King’s Gambit Declined after 4.d3 d6 5.f4 Nc6 6.Nf3; after 3…Nc6 4.d3, 4…Na5, 4…Bc5 or 4…d6 are all playable; 3…Bb4 4.f4 Nxe4 5.Qh5 0-0 leads to wild but probably equal play, according to de Firmian in MCO-15. Also possible is 3…Nxe4, when 4.Nxe4 d5, forking bishop and knight, is fine for Black. The attractive-looking 4.Bxf7+ is weak; after 4…Kxf7 5.Nxe4 d5! (inferior is 5…Nc6 6.Qf3+, when Black cannot play 6…Kg8?? because of 7.Ng5! 1–0 Davids–Diggle, London Banks League 1949, while 6…Ke8 leaves the king awkwardly placed in the center)6.Qf3+ (6.Qh5+ g6 7.Qxe5? Bh6! wins for Black) Kg8 7.Ng5!? (hoping for 7…Qxg5?? 8.Qxd5+ and mate next move, Schottlaender–Ed. Lasker, simultaneous exhibition, Breslau c. 1902) Qd7!, with a large advantage for Black in view of his bishop pair and pawn center. After 3…Nxe4, White usually continues instead 4.Qh5 (threatening Qxf7#) 4…Nd6 5.Bb3 when Black can either go for the relatively quiet waters of 5…Be7 6.Nf3 Nc6 7.Nxe5 g6 8.Qe2 (or 8.Nxc6 dxc6 9.Qe5 0-0) Nd4 9.Qd3 Nxb3 10.axb3 Nf5 11.0-0 d6, which led to equality inAnand–Ivanchuk, Roquebrune 1992. or the complexities of 5…Nc6 6.Nb5 g6 7.Qf3 f5 8.Qd5 Qe7 9.Nxc7+ Kd8 10.Nxa8 b6, which the Irish correspondence chess player and theoristTim Harding extravagantly dubbed ”the Frankenstein-Dracula Variation.”
3.g3[edit source | editbeta]
The move 3.g3, the Mieses Variation, is a quiet continuation in which White fianchettoes his king’s bishop, a line played by Vasily Smyslov on a few occasions, most notably in a win overLev Polugaevsky in the 1961 USSR Championship. That game continued 3…d5 4.exd5 Nxd5 5.Bg2 Be6 6.Nf3 Nc6 7.0-0 Be7 8.Re1 Bf6 9.Ne4 0-0 10.d3 Be7 11.a3 Nb6 12.b4, resulting in a position which the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings assesses as slightly better for White. The main line today, however, is considered to be 5…Nxc3 6.bxc3 Bd6 7.Nf3 0-0 8.0-0. A major alternative for Black is 3…Bc5 (3…Nc6 normally transposes into one of the other lines).
In addition to these lines, the late American master Ariel Mengarini advocated the whimsical 3.a3, sometimes called Mengarini’s Opening. It is not a serious try for advantage, but is essentially a useful waiting move that gives White an improved version of Black’s position after 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6. First, the ”Reversed Ruy Lopez” with 3…Bb4 is ruled out. Second, after 3…d5, 4.exd5 Nxd5 5.Qh5!? gives White an improved version of the Steinitz Variation of the Scotch Game, since Black can never play …Nb4, an important idea for White in the mirror-image position. Third, after 3…Bc5, 4.Nf3 gives a reversed Two Knights Defense. Then the typical 4…Ng4 may be met by 5.d4 exd4 6.Na4, when 6…Bb4+, White’s usual move in the mirror-image position, is impossible. After 4…Ng4, White may also play improved versions of the Ulvestad Variation (6.b4 in the above line) and Fritz Variation (6.Nd5 c6 7.b4), since when White plays b4 his pawn is protected, unlike in the mirror-image position. If Black plays more quietly with 3…Bc5 4.Nf3 Nc6, then 5.Nxe5! Nxe5 6.d4 gives White some advantage. The best line for Black may be 3…Bc5 4.Nf3 d5 5.exd5 0-0 (better than 5…e4 6.d4, when the normal 6…Bb4 is impossible), and if 6.Nxe5, 6…Re8 7.d4 Bxd4! 8.Qxd4 Nc6, as in the mirror-image line. Also possible is 3…Bc5 4.Nf3 d6, when Black stands well after 5.Bc4 Be6, while 5.d4 cxd4 6.Nxd4 gives White little or no advantage.
Most often, White plays 3.Bc4, when the solid 3…Nf6 transposes to the 2…Nf6 3.Bc4 Nc6 line. Weaker is 3.Bc4 Bc5, when 4.Qg4! is awkward to meet. 4…Kf8 and 4…g6 are thought the best moves, but neither is too appealing for Black. The natural 4…Qf6?? loses to 5.Nd5! Qxf2+ 6.Kd1, when White’s king is in no real danger, and White has multiple threats: 7.Qxg7; 7.Nxc7+; and 7.Nh3 Qd4 8.d3 threatening to trap Black’s queen with 9.c3.